Exercise for Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

The Effect of Land versus Aquatic Exercise Program on Bone Mineral Density and Physical Function in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis: a Randomized Controlled Trial

by Murtezani A., Abazi N. and Meka VS. from the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo; Nevzati A. from the Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy , University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland; Ibraimi Z. from the Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kosovo; Sllamniku S. from the National Institute of Public Health of Kosovo, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kosovo; July 2014.



Osteoporosis is a multifactorial progressive skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mass. Exercise is widely recommended to reduce osteoporosis, falls and related fragility fractures.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of land exercise aquatic on physical function and bone mineral density.


Material and Methods

Fifty-eight postmenopausal women, aged 50-70 years, diagnosed with osteoporosis according to bone mineral density measures, enrolled in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (land group) or the control group (aquatic group).

Physical function and bone mineral density were assessed in all subjects in both groups before and after 10 months of intervention. Muscle strength, flexibility, balance, gait time and pain were measured to assess physical function. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).



There were no significant differences between the two groups in the baseline anthropometric data. The two groups were similar with respect to age, weight, height, and body mass index (p>0.05). After the exercise program, muscle strength, flexibility, gait time, pain, and bone density (p<0.001) improved significantly with land exercise compared to aquatic exercise.
There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to balance at the 10-month follow-up. Significant improvements in physical function and bone mineral density suggest that land exercise is a possible alternative for postmenopausal women with Osteoporosis.


PMID: 25058107